Inflammation and Schizophrenia – a short lecture

Came across this short lecture on schizophrenia and the inflammation hypothesis. The author mentions three hypothesis for the causes of schizophrenia – elevated dopamine, glutamate receptor abnormalities, and inflammation. He also mentions the fact that autoimmune diseases can present with psychosis – lupus, Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, celiac disease, etc. It’s great to hear a professional acknowledging this fact, as not all doctors look into the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmune diseases.

Important notes from the lecture – some inflammation can be determined in a straightforward way by checking the C-reactive protein levels. Elevated levels of this substance increase the risk of schizophrenia onset. C-reactive protein levels are used to check for infection or chronic inflammatory disease, they also lead to increased risk of heart disease. It can be elevated due to a variety of diseases, such as obstructive sleep apnea, some viral infections, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
In one study lumbar puncture was performed on a sample of patients with schizophrenia. 54% of the patients had self-directed antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (another piece of evidence to support the immune system disturbance hypothesis). What could the antibodies be targeting? Possibly neuronal proteins or neuronal receptor proteins.

Inflammation and Schizophrenia video lecture

Hymenolepis diminuta observations and paper

As described in my previous posts, I have started HDC helminth therapy on June 4th. It has now been over a month. So far I have taken HDC three times – 10 on June 4th, 10 on June 9th, and 20 on June 25th. I have also updated my NA by adding three more on July 6th. It has now been over two weeks since my last HDC dose, helminth therapy wiki suggests dosing every two weeks and adult dosing is in range 30-60 HDC bi-weekly. I am waiting for my next order of 20, the delivery has been slow, and it’s expected to arrive on Friday. After that I plan to increase the dose to 30 as is advised, 20 may be not enough of a therapeutic dose for an adult.

One important observation is that during my period, which happened soon after the third dose of HDC, I did not have to take any pain relievers. I see this as not just a coincidence because last such occurrence happened almost a year ago in July 2018, after I started NA therapy. After that one time unfortunately pain levels during periods went back to usual unbearable and as usual I would take at least two Naproxen gels, sometimes also an ibuprofen. Several times I had to leave work early or work from home. Therefore I was quite surprised that when my period occurred in the end of June the pain began as usual but did not increase to unbearable levels. I went to work as usual, I always keep Naproxen in the drawer in the office and at home, but the pain never rose to the level where I would need a pain killer. I would say that just for this benefit HDC is already worth continuing as not being crippled by pain made me feel more free. Even though it’s not my fault, I often feel guilty leaving home early or asking to work from home every month. I am also not pleased with having to take Naproxen as for me it causes acid reflux and it makes me think that I am undoing the benefits of my efforts to heal the gut.

Another observation was recently increased heat tolerance.  In beginning of July temperatures rose to over 30 degrees Celsius and there is no central AC where I live. In order to cool down the house, I usually have to install two window air conditioner units. These units were taken down for the winter, so there were several days of temperatures around 30 degrees inside. I noticed that my sleep was not as disrupted as it previously would during heat. Also in general I was not as incapacitated by the temperature, I did feel lethargic, but did not have as severe indecisiveness nor mood swings exacerbation that often occur for me during summer heat.

The new lab test results are also encouraging. Free T4 and T3 stayed at the same levels, within normal range. TSH went down to 2.0, which is below the previous value of 2.58. This is a positive result, since some research indicates that the optimal cut- off value of TSH is 2.5 MIU/L. Anti-TPO antibodies have also decreased.

TSH cut off point based on depression in hypothyroid patients

test_jul2019

On a side note, I found that someone wrote their undergrad honors thesis on Hymenolepis diminuta. “Impacts of Hymenolepis diminuta (benign helminth worm) colonization on chronic pain and the central nervous system in Sprague Dawley rats“. If I would go back in time, I would prefer to also study neuropsychology. Unfortunately in my undergrad I was calculating bond and option prices. Glad to hear whenever someone is doing research on treatments for autoimmune disorders, specifically the connection between neuropsychiatric problems and inflammation. “The results from this project partially support the tenets of the hygiene hypothesis. Though behavioral results following CCI surgeries were inconclusive, molecular investigation of cytokine levels in the hippocampus showed promotion of an anti-inflammatory cytokine milieu due to the upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of its receptor. These promising results guide future research toward investigation of cytokine levels in other brain regions, such as the amygdala.

Impacts of Hymenolepis diminuta (benign helminth worm) colonization on chronic pain and the central nervous system in Sprague Dawley rats

HDC Therapy for autoimmune disorders

HDC, hymenolepis diminuta cysticercoids, is a larvae stage of a nice and friendly rat tapeworm, an adult of this species can be 20-60cm long. You might have a thought now “what am I reading and why?”, but hold on. Humans are not the usual host of hymenolepis diminuta, rats are, and in humans this helminth does not develop into an adult. There have been very few cases documented of humans being infected with adult HD. For this reason the HD larvae, HDC, is one of the species chosen for helminthic therapy as it does not reproduce inside humans, stays in the gut, does not reach adult size, and yet modulates the immune system as it tries to survive.

HDC survive in humans only for about two weeks, therefore for continuous therapy, HDC would need to be ingested at these intervals. HDC will live in the small intestine and attach to the intestine wall. There are no reports in the scientific literature of H. diminuta mis-migrating to other organs in humans. In a scientific review of helminthic therapy from 2016, HDC was listed as one of the more popular helminths:

Five physicians monitoring more than 700 self-treating patients were interviewed. The results strongly support previous indications that helminth therapy can effectively treat a wide range of allergies, autoimmune conditions and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as major depression and anxiety disorders. Approximately 57% of the self-treating patients observed by physicians in the study had autism. Physicians reported that the majority of patients with autism and inflammation-associated co-morbidities responded favourably to therapy with either of the two most popular organisms currently used by self-treaters, Hymenolepis diminuta and Trichuris suis. However, approximately 1% of paediatric patients experienced severe gastrointestinal pains with the use of H. diminuta, although the symptoms were resolved with an anti-helminthic drug. Further, exposure to helminths apparently did not affect the impaired comprehension of social situations that is the hallmark of autism. These observations point toward potential starting points for clinical trials, and provide further support for the importance of such trials and for concerted efforts aimed at probing the potential of helminths, and perhaps other biologicals, for therapeutic use.

Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians’ observations

Here is another paper from 2017 reviewing HDC use by self-treating individuals. Unfortunately there are not many clinical trials with treatment and control groups, therefore we have to rely on information on experiences from people like me who are obtaining helminths and treating themselves. ” In this study, we describe the production and use of HDCs in a manner that is based on reports from individuals self-treating with helminths, individuals producing helminths for self-treatment, and physicians monitoring patients that are self-treating.” The authors from Duke University are quite optimistic about helminthic therapy: “Helminthic therapy, the use of helminths to treat disease, offers the best hope of decreasing inflammation via immunomodulation rather than immunosuppression, and probably also improves mucosal barrier function.”

Production and Use of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoids as Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics

I was glad to read that I already have access to the most hopeful treatment for inflammation. I have to say that I tried a lot of supposedly anti-inflammatory treatments  and was quite disappointed with most. Turmeric lattes, green tea extract, probiotic capsules, licorice root tincture…  Personally, I don’t really want to buy any more supplements, except basic ones such as vitamin D, since I live in cold and dark Canada, and occasionally I take fish oil on days that I don’t eat seafood.

The idea behind helminthic therapy, on the other hand, is quite logical to me. It’s not a promotion of another one magical super inflammatory ingredient. The logic is that humans and certain helminths have evolved to co-exist in a symbiotic relationship and therefore our immune system has also evolved  to be modulated by molecules that helminths produce. Recent eradication of helminths in humans in developed countries could be resulting in a destruction of a beneficial symbiotic relationship and increase in rate of autoimmune diseases.

“Graph the data points, and the trend is unmistakable. Since the 1950s, rates of multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes, and asthma have soared by 300% or more (1). Similar graphs depict concurrent spikes in hay fever and food allergies (2).”

“Prevalence of food allergy in preschool children is now as high as 10% in Western countries, but remains just 2% in areas like mainland China (). The number of new cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Finland per year is 62.3 per every 100,000 children, compared with just 6.2 in Mexico and 0.5 in Pakistan (). Ulcerative colitis, a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is twofold higher in Western Europe than in Eastern Europe—6.5 per 100,000 people versus 3.1 per 100,000 ().”

In each of these disorders, either the immune system is overreacting to a trigger, such as pollen, peanuts, or pollution, or it’s attacking tissues it shouldn’t, such as beta cells in the pancreas in the case of T1D and in the intestines in IBD.”

News Feature: Cleaning up the hygiene hypothesis

 

Green tea vs. infliximab and tracking thyroid antibodies

I continue to track my thyroid antibodies and I will post my results here in case this information will be useful for anyone. Trust me, I know how fluctuating thyroid hormones suck and what it means for you in terms of your mood, energy, sleep. Today is a work day and since my work place is quite formal, I should be there by 9am. Nine to five, the usual. Well I couldn’t fall asleep until 1am and woke up at 6am. I felt cold shivers and my palms were sweaty. I lay in bed for a while but it was no use, I could not fall back asleep. I did get to work slightly after 9, not very late, sat down in my cubicle, turned on my screens and stared at the code. What was I supposed to be doing today? I had forgotten. My hands continued to sweat and I had chills. Emotionally I felt as if a train had run over me. I couldn’t remember on what task I stopped at on Friday. I sensed such fatigue that I was finding it difficult to sit up straight.

Logically I knew the cause, it all happened as my endocrinologist said it would. After a period of hyperthyroidism, my TSH went to almost non-existent level and now instead of being too high, my thyroid hormones were quickly dropping. Lab test on February 1st showed that free T4 and total T3 were near their lower threshold and TSH was also low. Since TSH continues to be low, and it is the thyroid-stimulating hormone, it was not stimulating the thyroid enough to produce T3 and T4. Therefore it’s likely that today hormone levels were even lower and I went into hypothyroid state.

test_feb2019

So this is what’s going on with my thyroid. I think the hypothyroidism symptoms are definitely starts as I have been getting chills, freezing even when my thermostat is at 24 degrees, not having the energy to talk to people even though I did not want to stay home on a Friday night. In theory, according to my endocrinologist, after an acute hyperthyroidism again, there will be not enough thyroid hormones stores in the thyroid gland, and therefore levels will fall. After sometime function should restore to normal, but hypothyroid state could last 8 months. I will be waiting for this normalization and in the meantime I will keep trying to reduce inflammation, because what else is there left to do.

Recently I came across a paper on green tea and exercise intervention for arthritis patients. “One-hundred and twenty subjects who had a mean age of (60.7 ± 2.53 years) and had been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at least ten years previously were randomly included in this study. Patients were treated with infliximab, green tea, or a supervised exercise program for six months. Disease activity markers as well as antioxidant activity of green tea extracts were estimated before supplementation using in vitro assays. [Results] Rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with green tea for 6 months alone or in combination with infliximab or an exercise program showed significant improvement in disease activity parameters, including C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, swollen and tender joints counts, and modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire score, along with an increase in serum levels of bone resorption markers, i.e., deoxypyridinoline, amino-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, and bone alkaline phosphatase, at 6 months of after initial treatment. The European League Against Rheumatism and American College of Rheumatology scores revealed more clinical improvement in the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with green tea along with exercise compared with rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab or exercise combinations.”

Green tea and exercise interventions as nondrug remedies in geriatric patients with rheumatoid arthritis

I know this is just one study and we should take the results with a grain of salt, but I see no harm in including green tea and exercise in your day. I want to note that I am not looking for only ‘natural’ treatments neither am I trying to prove that they are better. I am only looking for something that I can implement. When I was referred for IV corticosteroids treatment, I was happy to receive it and did see improvements. Since then I have not been prescribed any treatment even though I did ask for it. It’s possible that something like infliximab would work for me, but I have no access to it. I have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, celiac disease, and autoimmune encephalopathy, but inflixiamab is a medication that is prescribed for rheumatoid arthritis.

Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that suppresses some parts of the immune system. Infliximab is a lab made molecule that binds to a specific cytokine TNF-α (chemical messenger), which is one of the causes of autoimmune reaction. TNF-α is tumor necrosis factor aplha, a cell signaling protein involved in system inflammation. Wiki states that Dysregulation of TNF production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, major depression, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though controversial, studies of depression and IBD are currently being linked to TNF levels.

Infliximab has to be given as IV and cannot be taken orally as it would be destroyed by the digestive system. In the US the cost is about $19,000 per month and is mainly prescribed to arthritis patients who have not responded to other therapy. No one is going to prescribe it to me here in Canada.

Therefore, given that I have not been prescribed any meds at this point, and my psych and neuro keep debating whether to place me on IVIG or not, for now I have to do things on my own. Also trying green tea and exercise of course doesn’t cancel out any other treatment that I might get. I continue with helminthic therapy and hopefully I will get an IVIG trial (intravenous immunoglobulin therapy).

Tracking Anti-TPO and Anti-Tg antibodies

I have been tracking my thyroid antibody levels and I want to share my results, in case this information will be of use to someone. I have been diagnosed with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy in April 2017 and I was treated with intra-venous steroids (IV Solu-Medrol) in December 2017. In November 2017, before the steroids treatment, my thyroid hormone levels were normal, but my Anti-Tg and Anti-TPO antibodies were elevated. I was experiencing many symptoms such as fear, a sense of dread, severe anxiety, feeling of worthlessness. After the immunosuppressant treatment with steroids I had improvements in different areas of being, such as a desire to read fiction again, new interest in men, increased self-confidence, desire to play violin again. As you can see from the table below, my antibody levels decreased after the treatment, in May 2018 they were lower than in November 2017.

test_jan2019

I was improving in 2018 – I started this blog, took a violin lesson, read sci-fi. In the fall I completed mandatory adoption training and started the homestudy process with a social worker for adoption of children. This is something that I want to do because I wanted to have a family for a while, but I don’t feel that passing on my genes is the right way, as likely my children would inherit the same autoimmune disorders.

In November 2018 I started feeling worse. It’s difficult to pinpoint a specific cause of this as there were several events. I have been gluten-free now since 2016. Unfortunately one day in November I ate a whole bowl of lentil soup with barley because the take-out place stated that the soup only contains lentils and rice. Such large amount of gluten after not eating it at all for several years could have caused an immune reaction. I also got the flu twice, and the flu can also lead to the immune system being overactive even after the virus is gone. I also decided to try different probiotic supplements which had supporting evidence in regards to positive results for mood improvement. Maybe it did not go well for me and these bacterial strains were not accepted by my immune system.

In end of November I started to frequently wake up around 5am covered in sweat. At work my palms were sweating and I was getting chills. My pulse was regularly over 90 and my temperature was around 37.3 Celcius even though I did not have a flu nor a cold. My neck and face were burning, I felt waves of heat and shivers going through my body. After work by 6 pm I was lethargic and couldn’t get myself to exercise as I was in the fall. It was very clear to me that my thyroid hormones should be tested, so I right away went to the lab. December results show that at that point my TSH was already very low because my thyroid hormones were too high. Thyroid antibodies are also elevated.  Ultrasound confirmed inflammation of the thyroid. I was referred to Women’s College Hospital and they repeated blood tests again. It can be seen that December 19th results indicate even higher thyroid hormone levels.

At the moment when all this occurred, I had a regular schedule – sleeping 12am to 8am, working 9 to 5, was doing yoga before I became lethargic. I was not on any medications but I was taking several probiotic supplements – saccharomyces boulardii, and two probiotics for mood. I decided to stop all supplements and also came across an article about anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies. I did not have testing for these antibodies, but I decided to try going yeast-free and see whether symptoms improve. I stopped drinking my kefir and eating my sourdough bread. Also avoiding alcohol and vinegar. It’s interesting to see that in January my thyroid hormones were at their normal levels. It’s hard to say whether there was an issue with the supplements that I was taking, or yeast in food, or a random event of thyroid inflammation. I will be testing again at the end of January. There is not much evidence that yeast consumption could cause an autoimmune flare, but I will still keep going yeast free for sometime to see whether there will be improvements.

Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) are associated with body fat mass and systemic inflammation, but not with dietary yeast consumption: a cross-sectional study

“The findings indicate that ASCA IgG-positivity may be linked to the generalized inflammation commonly seen with increased adiposity, but not to dietary yeast intake. Other potential causes for the raised ASCA IgG concentrations, such as genetic predisposition, deviations in the gut microbiota and cross-reactivity of ASCA with other antigens, were not explored.”

 

 

Hot weather and other factors, autoimmune disease, and psychosis

I’m thankful to bloggers who wrote about their experience with diet and depression. I’ve learned through the blogs and then my own observation that I was making my mental health worse by eating gluten in all possible forms – pasta, sandwiches, Subway, wraps, tempura, soy sauce. I have also established that casein in cow’s milk makes me more psychotic, so I had to give up a lot of delicious habits – taro bubble tea, cheesecake, easily ordering a coffee with milk at Denny’s – I now usually carry goat milk in a cooler with me everywhere, in case I want to add it to tea. This post won’t be about diet though, I have posted on diet previously:

Autoimmune Encephalitis and Diet

This post is about the fact that changing your diet may improve your mental health but it won’t necessarily cure you. I think it’s important to remember that in order to not constantly blame yourself. I used to do that when I was on strict AIP diet – I used to blame myself for feeling depressed. After I noticed that the AIP diet was actually helping, I became convinced that I would soon be cured, as long as I stay on the diet. Probably I’ve read too many blogs claiming that grains contain lectins that cause brain inflammation and therefore depression. There are a lot of success stories online with bloggers stating that their depression vanished after going on AIP diet or paleo or keto or vegan, you name it. It’s easy then to start blaming yourself each time you feel depressed again – if all those people were cured, maybe then I am slacking, not avoiding enough foods, not being strict enough. I think we may go into the blaming state because we want to believe that we can have full control of our mood and it would be nice if as long as we didn’t eat certain ingredients, we would never be depressed or psychotic.

Blaming yourself only makes you feel worse though and it doesn’t let you accept the reality that mental health problems are caused by many factors. I think yes – you should definitely strive for a healthy diet – avoid fried foods, high glycemic foods, red meat, etc., but should you feel guilty about the brown rice bowl that you ate yesterday because AIP and paleo bloggers claim that all grains cause inflammation? No, I am not sure if there is any evidence that grains are an issue, some research actually suggests that the healthiest diets are ones that include whole grains – such as the Mediterranean and MIND diets. I think we have to accept that there are other factors affecting our mental health and some we cannot control. Periods are definitely one of them and they suck. I find that my paranoia and obsessive thoughts are definitely exacerbated during the first three days of my period. Can I cure this issue with diet? I don’t think so. Being female, my hormones will always fluctuate with the menstrual cycle, there is nothing I can do about that. I can remind myself that it’s only worse for three days and it will get better, I am not always psychotic, I can try exercising more, going for a walk. But cure? I don’t know of one.

Menstrual Psychosis: A Forgotten Disorder?

I have recently realized that heat increases my intrusive thoughts. I had observed for a while that hot weather makes me lethargic and quick-tempered, but now I have also correlated hot weather with psychosis. It had occurred several times during the past month when I experienced exacerbated negative commentary in my head. I noticed that each time this happened on a weekend when I was away, camping. Supposedly camping is better than work  – I was not alone, I was with friends, eating meals together – just as I like. Also I was moving – swimming, kayaking. Getting enough vitamin D. Definitely sniffing a lot of soil (reference to the antidepressant bacteria Soil Bacteria Work In Similar Way To Antidepressants), always bringing my own food in a cooler – tempeh, mung beans, buckwheat, freeze-dried vegetables, oatmeal. Stuff that I usually eat, so that was a constant factor. When analyzing what caused an event, we have to look into the differences, and the only factor that I could think of is heat. This summer has been very hot in Ontario, multiple days above 30 degrees. Every weekday though I am in an extremely air conditioned air building where I often wear my shawl. At home I have two functioning ACs. It was only during the camping that I was exposed to extreme heat for many hours in a row. I think I have to accept this fact – I love camping, but hot weather increases my aggression and psychotic symptoms.

There is also research supporting the idea that heat exacerbates mental health problems. “Above a threshold of 26.7°C, we observed a positive association between ambient temperature and hospital admissions for mental and behavioral disorders. Compared with non–heat-wave periods, hospital admissions increased by 7.3% during heat waves.

The Effect of Heat Waves on Mental Health in a Temperate Australian City

Heat exposure associated with mental illness – A mental hospital-based study in Hanoi, Vietnam looked at if there is a relationship between heat exposure and mental health problems. The results showed significant increase in hospital admissions for mental illnesses during periods of heatwaves, especially during longer periods of heat exposure.

Heat exposure associated with mental illness

Exposure to sun can also exacerbate autoimmune disease symptoms, and for me this directly means worsening of mental problems. ”

“‘Photosensitivity can trigger the whole darn disease, including full systemic flare and joint pain and kidney failure,’ Dr. Connolly said. ‘The younger patients sometimes say, ‘The heck with this, I’m tired of carrying sun block,’ and they’ll stay out there, and it’s not just that they are going to give themselves a bad rash. This is something to take seriously.’

The link between the sun and lupus flare-ups is thought to be a set of inflammatory protein molecules called cytokines, which are activated when ultraviolet light hits the skin. The skin inflammation that results can create a chain reaction of other symptoms.

A Sunny Day Can Mean All Sorts of Distress

This is all sad news, but I still want to go outside. I want to go hiking, kayaking down whitewater rivers, canoeing through uninhabited islands. I still have to accept that sometimes camping might make me feel worse. Probably I need to give up on t-shirts and always wear long sleeves when it’s hot. I do always wear a hat and sunscreen. Also going outside is important for vitamin D and we do need UV light to set our circadian rhythm. Therefore no, you shouldn’t lock yourself up in the house, but it’s better to not be out in the sun in the swim suit for too long. I’m going to stick with pants, shirts, running shoes, and caps. On the other hand I’m also not going to blame myself if I do feel worse. I did not create this disease, it’s not my fault that I react to weather, I can’t control the weather and I can’t avoid the weather. Let’s not feel worse by blaming, let’s learn from the available information and also remember that even if you are doing everything right, sometimes psychosis may still occur and we won’t know why. Maybe we will in the future and you will have this device that will tell you in real time ‘your dopamine levels are going higher than the suggested threshold, eat this scientifically advanced cookie and it will fix the problem’. I do hope for such a future, but for now it’s just science fiction. Research has shown that one way to reduce suffering during a psychotic episode is to accept the experience but not act on it. Accept also that there will be a peak of the symptoms but then they will diminish, it will pass.

Industrialization, autoimmune diseases, and depression

I used to think that I was in control of my own mind, but it’s clearly not the case. I don’t choose how to feel and how to emotionally respond to situations, just as I don’t choose when to feel hungry. I don’t choose my thoughts as well. I don’t know which thought is going to come next, it’s just going to pop up in my conscious mind and I will observe it, I will react to it. Someone recently told me that all the choice that we have in life is the direction of our view. We don’t choose our emotions, we don’t choose our thoughts, we don’t choose the environment around us, we can only turn our head and change the view, and observe.

That’s why doctors prescribe antidepressants – people don’t choose to be depressed and they can’t just “think their way out of it”. And sometimes antidepressants help, maybe for some people depression is just a lack of serotonin and SSRIs fix that imbalance. The chemical imbalance theory is not 100% confirmed, some scientists debate whether this is a cause of depression at all, perhaps antidepressants help some people not by increasing serotonin, but by decreasing inflammation. Autoimmune diseases are what can cause chronic inflammation.  This is when “the immune system prompts white blood cells to attack nearby healthy tissues and organs, setting up a chronic inflammatory process”. Turns out the brain can be affected by this process as well. “People who had been treated for a severe infection were 62% more likely to have developed a mood disorder than those who never had one. An autoimmune disease increased the risk by 45%. Multiple infections or the combination of severe infection and an autoimmune disease boosted the odds of developing depression, bipolar disorder, or another mood disorder even further.”

Infection, autoimmune disease linked to depression

Next I am going to speculate and talk about the possible causes of rising incidence of autoimmune disease. I am going to mention the idea that the lifestyle that we obtained through industrialization turned out to be pro-inflammatory. I am not proposing to go back to living in a village, but I want to propose making practical lifestyle changes that can help reduce chronic inflammation and in turn depression.

We are participating in less physical activity and are gaining higher body weight

One result of industrialization is we are eating more sugar, moving less, and weighting more. “How could carrying extra weight and sofa-sitting be connected to higher levels of inflammatory chemicals in the body and the development of diabetes?

Researchers discovered that excess body fat, especially in the abdomen, causes continuous (chronic), low levels of abnormal inflammation that alters insulin’s action and contributes to the disease.

The body becomes less sensitive to insulin and the resulting insulin resistance also leads to inflammation. A vicious cycle can result, with more inflammation causing more insulin resistance and vice versa. Blood sugar levels creep higher and higher, eventually resulting in type 2 diabetes.

Are Diabetes and Inflammation Connected?

We are eating high glycemic foods

We are eating more processed and high glycemic foods. The bread that people used to eat when they lived in villages was usually not the white bread from refined flour, it was sourdough, which has more nutrients, and a low glycemic index. I doubt anyone used to eat pasta, pizza, or fries often, if at all. I know that in peasant Russia there was fermented cabbage, sourdough rye bread, barley, and broth, sometimes meat and fish. Also fermented milk products. None of those foods have a high glycemic index.

According to Harvard researchers, healthy, middle-aged women who ate the meals with the lowest glycemic load had the lowest levels of C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation in the body.

In overweight women who had greater levels of C-reactive protein to begin with, eating higher amounts of low glycemic index foods had an even greater impact on their inflammatory markers.

The Link between Glycemic Index, Diabetes, Inflammation and Heart Disease

We are eating fewer fermented foods

How often do you drink kefir or yougurt, eat kimchi or sauerkraut? Do you eat natto or fermented bean curd? Tempeh? Sourdough bread? Cassava fufu? If the answer is pretty often, I would say that’s good, but many people in US and Canada rarely eat fermented foods. Maybe sometimes yougurt, but it’s questionable whether store bought yougurt has live probiotics. Previously people ate fermented foods more often. They didn’t really have much choice since refrigerators weren’t available. Milk goes bad pretty quickly, so you need to make it into kefir or yougurt. In winter you don’t have fresh vegetables, you have fermented vegetables in jars that you prepared during the summer. Same with fruits. There have been several papers recently linking fermented foods to mental health, here is what is stated in one of them: “The extent to which traditional dietary items may mitigate inflammation and oxidative stress may be controlled, at least to some degree, by microbiota. It is our contention that properly controlled fermentation may often amplify the specific nutrient and phytochemical content of foods, the ultimate value of which may associated with mental health; furthermore, we also argue that the microbes (for example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteriaspecies) associated with fermented foods may also influence brain health via direct and indirect pathways.

Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry

We have lost our “old friends”

One of recent theories is that the rise in autoimmune disorders could be due to our gut microbiome depletion. With sanitary toilets, pasteurized milk, less time with animals (urban citizens rarely hang out with farm animals, neither do they milk cows, and now few even have pets due to smaller apartment sizes), we have lost many microbes and parasites that used to inhabit our gut. Turns out this might not be a good thing. It could be that because we as species cohabited with these organisms for so long, our immune system evolved to train on these parasites, and now we are lacking this training. “Diminished exposure to immunoregulation-inducing Old Friends in the perinatal period may enhance the consequences of psychosocial stressors, which induce increased levels of inflammatory mediators, modulate the microbiota and increase the risk for developing all known psychiatric conditions. In later life, the detrimental effects of psychosocial stressors may be exaggerated when the stress occurs against a background of reduced immunoregulation, so that more inflammation (and therefore more psychiatric symptoms) result from any given level of psychosocial stress. This interaction between immunoregulatory deficits and psychosocial stressors may lead to reduced stress resilience in modern urban communities.

Microbial ‘Old Friends’, immunoregulation and stress resilience

Do we need to move back to the village? Or to a cave?

Well I’m hopeful that I won’t have to, because my job is in downtown Toronto, and it would be hard to commute there from a remote village. I hope that given the recent research, we can use this information to improve our immune system function, while still living in a city. We can cook more food at home instead of buying processed food. I rarely buy anything at the food court during the work day, I bring everything from home. I am also making fermented foods – kefir, yougurt, sourdough bread, kombucha. I also purchased some at Asian grocery stores – they have fermented bean curd, natto, fermented Chinese cabbage.

In terms of moving around, I try not to sit at my desk at work for too long. I get up to make tea, go for a walk during lunch. Walk to the subway in the morning instead of taking the streetcar. Walk home after work with a friend. Gym I personally found very boring, but I do exercise at home with an aerobic step. Doctors suggest at least 30 minutes of aerobic exercise a day, heart rate needs to go up!

In terms of bringing back “old friends” – this can partly be done by consuming probiotic and prebiotic foods to increase gut microbiome diversity. There are also soil bacteria that are considered beneficial, we can obtain them by spending time near soil and breathing in the particles. Having a dog is stated to have beneficial effects on our gut microbiome. There is also experimental helminthic therapy – infecting yourself with parasites on purpose. I am planning on trying this therapy and I will write more on this topic later on.